Room-Temperature Processed Nb2O5 as the Electron-Transporting Layer for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

Xufeng Ling, Jianyu Yuan, Dongyang Liu, Yongjie Wang, Yannan Zhang, Si Chen, Haihua Wu, Feng Jin, Fupeng Wu, Guozheng Shi, Xun Tang, Jiawei Zheng, Shengzhong Liu, Zhike Liu, Wanli Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, we demonstrate high-efficiency planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs), using room-temperature sputtered niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). Widely spread ETL-like TiO2 often requires high-temperature (>450 °C) sintering, which is not desired for the fabrication of flexible devices. The amorphous Nb2O5 (labeled as a-Nb2O5) ETL, without any heat treatment, can give a best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.1% for planar PSCs. Interestingly, the crystalline Nb2O5 (labeled as c-Nb2O5), with high-temperature (500 °C) annealing, results in a very similar PCE of 17.2%, indicating the great advantage of a-Nb2O5 in energy saving. We thus carried out a systematical investigation on the properties of the a-Nb2O5 film. The Hall effect measurements indicate both high mobility and conductivity of the a-Nb2O5 film. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements define the Fermi levels of a-Nb2O5 and c-Nb2O5 as -4.31 and -4.02 eV, respectively, which allow efficient electron extraction at the Nb2O5/perovskite interface, regardless of the additional heat treatment on Nb2O5 film. Benefitting from the low-temperature process, we further demonstrated flexible PSCs based on a-Nb2O5, with a considerable PCE of 12.1%. The room-temperature processing and relatively high device performance of a-Nb2O5 suggest a great potential for its application in optoelectrical devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23181-23188
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - Jul 12 2017
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)


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