Adrenal hypoplasia is a rare, life-threatening congenital disorder. Here we define a new form of syndromic adrenal hypoplasia, which we propose to term MIRAGE (myelodysplasia, infection, restriction of growth, adrenal hypoplasia, genital phenotypes, and enteropathy) syndrome. By exome sequencing and follow-up studies, we identified 11 patients with adrenal hypoplasia and common extra-adrenal features harboring mutations in SAMD9. Expression of the wild-type SAMD9 protein, a facilitator of endosome fusion, caused mild growth restriction in cultured cells, whereas expression of mutants caused profound growth inhibition. Patient-derived fibroblasts had restricted growth, decreased plasma membrane EGFR expression, increased size of early endosomes, and intracellular accumulation of giant vesicles carrying a late endosome marker. Of interest, two patients developed myelodysplasitc syndrome (MDS) that was accompanied by loss of the chromosome 7 carrying the SAMD9 mutation. Considering the potent growth-restricting activity of the SAMD9 mutants, the loss of chromosome 7 presumably occurred as an adaptation to the growth-restricting condition.
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