Seasonal variation of fine- and coarse-mode nitrates and related aerosols over East Asia: Synergetic observations and chemical transport model analysis

Itsushi Uno, Kazuo Osada, Keiya Yumimoto, Zhe Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Xiaole Pan, Yukari Hara, Yugo Kanaya, Shigekazu Yamamoto, Thomas Duncan Fairlie

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Abstract

We analyzed long-term fine- and coarse-mode synergetic observations of nitrate and related aerosols (SO2 4 , NO3 , NHC4 , NaC, Ca2C) at Fukuoka (33.52 N, 130.47 E) from August 2014 to October 2015. A Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) including dust and sea salt acid uptake processes was used to assess the observed seasonal variation and the impact of long-range transport (LRT) from the Asian continent. For fine aerosols (fSO2 4 , fNO3 , and fNHC4 ), numerical results explained the seasonal changes, and a sensitivity analysis excluding Japanese domestic emissions clarified the LRT fraction at Fukuoka (85% for fSO2 4 , 47% for fNO3 , 73% for fNHC4 ). Observational data confirmed that coarse NO3 (cNO3 ) made up the largest proportion (i.e., 40-55 %) of the total nitrate (defined as the sum of fNO3 , cNO3 , and HNO3) during the winter, while HNO3 gas constituted approximately 40% of the total nitrate in summer and fNO3 peaked during the winter. Large-scale dust-nitrate (mainly cNO3 ) outflow from China to Fukuoka was confirmed during all dust events that occurred between January and June. The modeled cNO3 was in good agreement with observations between July and November (mainly coming from sea salt NO3 ). During the winter, however, the model underestimated cNO3 levels compared to the observed levels. The reason for this underestimation was examined statistically using multiple regression analysis (MRA).We used cNaC, nsscCa2 C, and cNHC4 as independent variables to describe the observed cNO3 levels; these variables were considered representative of sea salt cNO3 , dust cNO3 , and cNO3 accompanied by cNHC4 ), respectively. The MRA results explained the observed seasonal changes in dust cNO3 and indicated that the dust-acid uptake scheme reproduced the observed dust-nitrate levels even in winter. The annual average contributions of each component were 43% (sea salt cNO3 ), 19% (dust cNO3 ), and 38% (cNHC4 term). The MRA dust-cNO3 component had a high value during the dust season, and the sea salt component made a large contribution throughout the year. During the winter, cNHC4 term made a large contribution. The model did not include aerosol microphysical processes (such as condensation and coagulation between the fine anthropogenic aerosols NO3 and SO2 4 and coarse particles), and our results suggest that inclusion of aerosol microphysical processes is critical when studying observed cNO3 formation, especially in winter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14181-14197
Number of pages17
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume17
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 29 2017

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seasonal variation
aerosol
nitrate
dust
sea salt
winter
multiple regression
regression analysis
long range transport
chemical
Asia
analysis
acid
EOS
coagulation
sensitivity analysis
condensation
outflow
summer
gas

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

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Seasonal variation of fine- and coarse-mode nitrates and related aerosols over East Asia : Synergetic observations and chemical transport model analysis. / Uno, Itsushi; Osada, Kazuo; Yumimoto, Keiya; Wang, Zhe; Itahashi, Syuichi; Pan, Xiaole; Hara, Yukari; Kanaya, Yugo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Duncan Fairlie, Thomas.

In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, No. 23, 29.11.2017, p. 14181-14197.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Uno, Itsushi ; Osada, Kazuo ; Yumimoto, Keiya ; Wang, Zhe ; Itahashi, Syuichi ; Pan, Xiaole ; Hara, Yukari ; Kanaya, Yugo ; Yamamoto, Shigekazu ; Duncan Fairlie, Thomas. / Seasonal variation of fine- and coarse-mode nitrates and related aerosols over East Asia : Synergetic observations and chemical transport model analysis. In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2017 ; Vol. 17, No. 23. pp. 14181-14197.
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abstract = "We analyzed long-term fine- and coarse-mode synergetic observations of nitrate and related aerosols (SO2 4 , NO3 , NHC4 , NaC, Ca2C) at Fukuoka (33.52 N, 130.47 E) from August 2014 to October 2015. A Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) including dust and sea salt acid uptake processes was used to assess the observed seasonal variation and the impact of long-range transport (LRT) from the Asian continent. For fine aerosols (fSO2 4 , fNO3 , and fNHC4 ), numerical results explained the seasonal changes, and a sensitivity analysis excluding Japanese domestic emissions clarified the LRT fraction at Fukuoka (85{\%} for fSO2 4 , 47{\%} for fNO3 , 73{\%} for fNHC4 ). Observational data confirmed that coarse NO3 (cNO3 ) made up the largest proportion (i.e., 40-55 {\%}) of the total nitrate (defined as the sum of fNO3 , cNO3 , and HNO3) during the winter, while HNO3 gas constituted approximately 40{\%} of the total nitrate in summer and fNO3 peaked during the winter. Large-scale dust-nitrate (mainly cNO3 ) outflow from China to Fukuoka was confirmed during all dust events that occurred between January and June. The modeled cNO3 was in good agreement with observations between July and November (mainly coming from sea salt NO3 ). During the winter, however, the model underestimated cNO3 levels compared to the observed levels. The reason for this underestimation was examined statistically using multiple regression analysis (MRA).We used cNaC, nsscCa2 C, and cNHC4 as independent variables to describe the observed cNO3 levels; these variables were considered representative of sea salt cNO3 , dust cNO3 , and cNO3 accompanied by cNHC4 ), respectively. The MRA results explained the observed seasonal changes in dust cNO3 and indicated that the dust-acid uptake scheme reproduced the observed dust-nitrate levels even in winter. The annual average contributions of each component were 43{\%} (sea salt cNO3 ), 19{\%} (dust cNO3 ), and 38{\%} (cNHC4 term). The MRA dust-cNO3 component had a high value during the dust season, and the sea salt component made a large contribution throughout the year. During the winter, cNHC4 term made a large contribution. The model did not include aerosol microphysical processes (such as condensation and coagulation between the fine anthropogenic aerosols NO3 and SO2 4 and coarse particles), and our results suggest that inclusion of aerosol microphysical processes is critical when studying observed cNO3 formation, especially in winter.",
author = "Itsushi Uno and Kazuo Osada and Keiya Yumimoto and Zhe Wang and Syuichi Itahashi and Xiaole Pan and Yukari Hara and Yugo Kanaya and Shigekazu Yamamoto and {Duncan Fairlie}, Thomas",
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T1 - Seasonal variation of fine- and coarse-mode nitrates and related aerosols over East Asia

T2 - Synergetic observations and chemical transport model analysis

AU - Uno, Itsushi

AU - Osada, Kazuo

AU - Yumimoto, Keiya

AU - Wang, Zhe

AU - Itahashi, Syuichi

AU - Pan, Xiaole

AU - Hara, Yukari

AU - Kanaya, Yugo

AU - Yamamoto, Shigekazu

AU - Duncan Fairlie, Thomas

PY - 2017/11/29

Y1 - 2017/11/29

N2 - We analyzed long-term fine- and coarse-mode synergetic observations of nitrate and related aerosols (SO2 4 , NO3 , NHC4 , NaC, Ca2C) at Fukuoka (33.52 N, 130.47 E) from August 2014 to October 2015. A Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) including dust and sea salt acid uptake processes was used to assess the observed seasonal variation and the impact of long-range transport (LRT) from the Asian continent. For fine aerosols (fSO2 4 , fNO3 , and fNHC4 ), numerical results explained the seasonal changes, and a sensitivity analysis excluding Japanese domestic emissions clarified the LRT fraction at Fukuoka (85% for fSO2 4 , 47% for fNO3 , 73% for fNHC4 ). Observational data confirmed that coarse NO3 (cNO3 ) made up the largest proportion (i.e., 40-55 %) of the total nitrate (defined as the sum of fNO3 , cNO3 , and HNO3) during the winter, while HNO3 gas constituted approximately 40% of the total nitrate in summer and fNO3 peaked during the winter. Large-scale dust-nitrate (mainly cNO3 ) outflow from China to Fukuoka was confirmed during all dust events that occurred between January and June. The modeled cNO3 was in good agreement with observations between July and November (mainly coming from sea salt NO3 ). During the winter, however, the model underestimated cNO3 levels compared to the observed levels. The reason for this underestimation was examined statistically using multiple regression analysis (MRA).We used cNaC, nsscCa2 C, and cNHC4 as independent variables to describe the observed cNO3 levels; these variables were considered representative of sea salt cNO3 , dust cNO3 , and cNO3 accompanied by cNHC4 ), respectively. The MRA results explained the observed seasonal changes in dust cNO3 and indicated that the dust-acid uptake scheme reproduced the observed dust-nitrate levels even in winter. The annual average contributions of each component were 43% (sea salt cNO3 ), 19% (dust cNO3 ), and 38% (cNHC4 term). The MRA dust-cNO3 component had a high value during the dust season, and the sea salt component made a large contribution throughout the year. During the winter, cNHC4 term made a large contribution. The model did not include aerosol microphysical processes (such as condensation and coagulation between the fine anthropogenic aerosols NO3 and SO2 4 and coarse particles), and our results suggest that inclusion of aerosol microphysical processes is critical when studying observed cNO3 formation, especially in winter.

AB - We analyzed long-term fine- and coarse-mode synergetic observations of nitrate and related aerosols (SO2 4 , NO3 , NHC4 , NaC, Ca2C) at Fukuoka (33.52 N, 130.47 E) from August 2014 to October 2015. A Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) including dust and sea salt acid uptake processes was used to assess the observed seasonal variation and the impact of long-range transport (LRT) from the Asian continent. For fine aerosols (fSO2 4 , fNO3 , and fNHC4 ), numerical results explained the seasonal changes, and a sensitivity analysis excluding Japanese domestic emissions clarified the LRT fraction at Fukuoka (85% for fSO2 4 , 47% for fNO3 , 73% for fNHC4 ). Observational data confirmed that coarse NO3 (cNO3 ) made up the largest proportion (i.e., 40-55 %) of the total nitrate (defined as the sum of fNO3 , cNO3 , and HNO3) during the winter, while HNO3 gas constituted approximately 40% of the total nitrate in summer and fNO3 peaked during the winter. Large-scale dust-nitrate (mainly cNO3 ) outflow from China to Fukuoka was confirmed during all dust events that occurred between January and June. The modeled cNO3 was in good agreement with observations between July and November (mainly coming from sea salt NO3 ). During the winter, however, the model underestimated cNO3 levels compared to the observed levels. The reason for this underestimation was examined statistically using multiple regression analysis (MRA).We used cNaC, nsscCa2 C, and cNHC4 as independent variables to describe the observed cNO3 levels; these variables were considered representative of sea salt cNO3 , dust cNO3 , and cNO3 accompanied by cNHC4 ), respectively. The MRA results explained the observed seasonal changes in dust cNO3 and indicated that the dust-acid uptake scheme reproduced the observed dust-nitrate levels even in winter. The annual average contributions of each component were 43% (sea salt cNO3 ), 19% (dust cNO3 ), and 38% (cNHC4 term). The MRA dust-cNO3 component had a high value during the dust season, and the sea salt component made a large contribution throughout the year. During the winter, cNHC4 term made a large contribution. The model did not include aerosol microphysical processes (such as condensation and coagulation between the fine anthropogenic aerosols NO3 and SO2 4 and coarse particles), and our results suggest that inclusion of aerosol microphysical processes is critical when studying observed cNO3 formation, especially in winter.

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