β-1,3-Glucans act as unique natural nanotubes, the features of which are greatly different from other natural or synthetic helical polymers. The origin mostly stems from their strong helix-forming nature and reversible interconversion between single-strand random coil and triple-strand helix. During this interconversion process, they can accept functional polymers, molecular assemblies and nanoparticles in an induced-fit manner to create water-soluble one-dimensional nanocomposites, where individual conjugated polymers or molecular assemblies can be incorporated into the one-dimensional hollow constructed by the helical superstructure of β-1,3-glucans. The advantageous point of the β-1,3-glucan hosting system is that the selective modification of β-1,3-glucans leads to the creation of various functional one-dimensional nanocomposites in a supramolecular manner, being applicable toward fundamental nanomaterials such as sensors or circuits. Furthermore, the composites with functional surfaces can act as one-dimensional building blocks toward further hierarchical self-assemblies, leading to the creation of two- or three-dimensional nanoarchitectures.