A low-temperature ammonia synthesis process is required for on-site synthesis. Barium-doped calcium amide (Ba-Ca(NH2)2) enhances the efficacy of ammonia synthesis mediated by Ru and Co by 2 orders of magnitude more than that of a conventional Ru catalyst at temperatures below 300 °C. Furthermore, the presented catalysts are superior to the wüstite-based Fe catalyst, which is known as a highly active industrial catalyst at low temperatures and pressures. Nanosized Ru–Ba core–shell structures are self-organized on the Ba-Ca(NH2)2 support during H2 pretreatment, and the support material is simultaneously converted into a mesoporous structure with a high surface area (>100 m2 g−1). These self-organized nanostructures account for the high catalytic performance in low-temperature ammonia synthesis.
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