Recent studies revealed that a class III semaphorin, semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), acts through a single-pass transmembrane receptor, plexin D1, to provide a repulsive cue for plexin D1-expressing endothelial cells, thus providing a highly conserved and developmentally regulated signaling system guiding the growth of blood vessels. We show here that Sema3E acts as a potent inhibitor of adult and tumor-induced angiogenesis. Activation of plexin D1 by Sema3E causes the rapid disassembly of integrin-mediated adhesive structures, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and causing the retraction of filopodia in endothelial tip cells. Sema3E acts on plexin D1 to initiate a two-pronged mechanism involving R-Ras inactivation and Arf6 stimulation, which affect the status of activation of integrins and their intracellular trafficking, respectively. Ultimately, our present study provides a molecular framework for antiangiogenesis signaling, thus impinging on a myriad of pathological conditions that are characterized by aberrant increase in neovessel formation, including cancer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology