The toxicity of Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) in animals, and that of Cd(II) in cultured cells, has been associated with generation of the promutagenic lesion 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoguanine) in DNA, among other effects. One possible source of this base may be 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP), a product of oxidative damage to the nucleotide pool, from which it is incorporated into DNA. To promote such incorporation, the metals would have to inhibit specific cellular 8-oxo-dGTPases that eliminate 8-oxo-dGTP from the nucleotide pool. The present study was designed to test such inhibition in vitro on 8-oxo-dGTPases from two different species, the human MTH1 protein and Escherichia coli MutT protein. In the presence of Mg(II), the natural activator of 8-oxo-dGTPases, all four metals were found to inhibit both enzymes. For MTH1, the IC50 values (± SE; n = 3-4) were 17 ± 2 μM for Cu(II), 30 ± 8 μM for Cd(II), 376 ± 71 μM for Co(II) and 801 ± 97 μM for Ni(II). For MutT, they were 60 ± 6 μM for Cd(II), 102 ± 8 μM for Cu(II), 1461 ± 96 μM for Ni(II) and 8788 ± 1003 μM for Co(II). Thus, Cu(II) and Cd(II) emerged as much stronger inhibitors than Ni(II) and Co(II), and MTH1 appeared to be generally more sensitive to metal inhibition than MutT. Interestingly, in the absence of Mg(II), the activity of the enzymes could be restored by Co(II) to 73% of that with Mg(II) alone for MutT, and 34% for MTH1, the other metals being much less or non-effective. The difference in sensitivity to metal inhibition between the two enzymes may reflect the differences in the amino acid ligands, especially the cysteine ligand, outside their evolutionarily conserved Mg(II)-binding active sites, which might indicate predominantly non-competitive or uncompetitive mechanism of the inhibition. The overall results suggest that inhibition of 8-oxo-dGTPases may be involved in the mechanisms of induction of the 8-oxoguanine lesion in DNA by the metal ions studied, especially the non-redox-active Cd(II) cation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research