Magnetic fractions were extracted from pulverized waste-to-energy (WTE) bottom ashes using a combined wet-dry extraction method. The resulting magnetic and non-magnetic fractions were subjected to compositional, mineralogical, and redox state analyses by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The distribution and leaching toxicity of heavy metals were assessed to evaluate potential effects on the environment. Compositional analyses revealed that Fe accounted for 35% of the magnetic fraction of pulverized ashes, which was approximately seven times that of the raw ash. In addition to Fe, elemental Ni, Mn, and Cr were also significantly enriched in the magnetic fractions. The mineralogical analysis determined that Fe was primarily present as hematite and magnetite, and metallic iron was also identified in the magnetic fraction samples. The XPS analysis further proved the existence of zero-valence Fe. However, a significant amount of Fe remained in the non-magnetic fractions, which could partially be ascribed to the intergrowth structure of the various minerals. The elevated concentrations of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extracted Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were primarily ascribed to the lower buffering capability of the magnetic fractions, with the enrichment of Mn, Ni, and Cr in the magnetic fractions also contributing to this elevation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis