Objective: To investigate the association between serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2), a soluble type of an innate immune receptor expressed on the microglia, and the risk of dementia. Methods: A total of 1,349 Japanese community residents aged 60 and older without dementia were followed prospectively for 10 years (2002–2012). Serum sTREM2 levels were quantified by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and divided into quartiles. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of serum sTREM2 levels on the risk of dementia. Results: During the follow-up, 300 subjects developed all-cause dementia; 193 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 85 had vascular dementia (VaD). The age- and sex-adjusted incidences of all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD elevated significantly with higher serum sTREM2 levels (all p for trend < 0.012). These associations were not altered after adjustment for confounding factors, including high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Subjects with the highest quartile of serum sTREM2 levels had significantly higher multivariable-adjusted risks of developing all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD than those with the lowest quartile (HR = 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39–2.97, p < 0.001 for all-cause dementia; HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02–2.55, p = 0.04 for AD; HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.35–6.02, p = 0.006 for VaD). No significant heterogeneity in the association of serum sTREM2 levels with the development of dementia was observed among the other risk factor subgroups (all p for heterogeneity > 0.11). Interpretation: The present findings suggest a significant association between increased serum sTREM2 levels and the risk of developing all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD in the general elderly Japanese population. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:47–58.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology