Simple assay method for endocrine disrupters by in vitro quail embryo culture: Nonylphenol acts as a weak estrogen in quail embryos

Ken Ichi Nishijima, Kazuhisa Esaka, Hisayo Ibuki, Ken Ichiro Ono, Katsuhide Miyake, Masamichi Kamihira, Shinji Iijima

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Many chemicals that are not structurally related to estrogen have estrogen-like activity. In this study, we tried to apply a quail embryo culture system for assessing the in vivo effects of such chemicals on the development of quail embryos. β-Estradiol induced feminization of the gonads of genetically male embryos, which was confirmed by the increase in the size of the left gonad and female-specific aromatase expression, while male-specific SOX9 expression was not affected. Nonylphenol, which has a weak estrogenic activity, reduced the viability and body weight of embryos. Simultaneously, several genetically male embryos were feminized in terms of gonadal size and aromatase expression. These results indicate that the avian embryo culture system was useful for evaluating endocrine disrupters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)612-617
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2003
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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