Sizing mechanism of emulsion rosin size-alum systems

Part 3. Solid-state 13C-NMR analysis of handsheets prepared by 13C-labeled fatty acid-alum systems

Takuya Kitaoka, Akira Isogai, Fumihiko Onabe, Nobuhiko Suguri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sizing mechanism of emulsion rosin size-alum systems was studied by model experiments using 13C-labeld fatty acids and solid-state 13C-NMR analysis of the fatty acid-sized handsheets. Anionic and cationic fatty acid emulsion sizes were prepared, and were used as internal sizes with alum for making handsheets. Also soaking treatments into fatty acid / chloroform solutions were applied to alum-treated handsheets. Sizing behavior of fatty acids in these internal sizing and soaking treatments were first studied, and then the structures of fatty acid components in the handsheets were analyzed in terms of chemical shifts of 13C-carbonyl carbons of fatty acids by solid-state 13C-NMR. The fatty acid emulsion sizes prepared from mixtures of stearic and palmitic acids gave sizing features to handsheets more efficiently than a commercial emulsion rosin size. Solid-state 13C-NMR analysis revealed that most of fatty acid components in handsheets prepared with the fatty acid emulsion sizes and alum were in the free acid form without forming aluminum salts. Therefore, probably also in the case of emulsion rosin size-alum systems, most of rosin size components in the papersheet are in the free acid form, and these free rosin acids contribute to the sizing features. When handsheets prepared with 0-4% alum without any internal sizes were soaked in fatty acid / chloroform solutions, a clear difference in sizing degrees was observed between non-alum handsheets and alum-treated ones: +0 s for the blank (0% alum) handsheet (S1) and 40 s for the 4% alum-treated handsheet (S2). However, both NMR patterns and spin-lattice relaxation time of carbonyl carbons of fatty acid components were almost identical between S1 and S2. Thus, in the soaking treatment, the fatty acid components were also present as free acid structures in handsheets without forming aluminum salts. The distinct effect of aluminum compounds in handsheets after soaking treatments is not yet clarified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-188
Number of pages7
JournalNordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal
Volume12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1997
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

rosin
alum
emulsion
Emulsions
Fatty acids
emulsions
nuclear magnetic resonance
Fatty Acids
fatty acid
Nuclear magnetic resonance
fatty acids
soaking
acid
aluminum
Acids
acids
Chloroform
Chlorine compounds
chloroform
Aluminum

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Sizing mechanism of emulsion rosin size-alum systems : Part 3. Solid-state 13C-NMR analysis of handsheets prepared by 13C-labeled fatty acid-alum systems. / Kitaoka, Takuya; Isogai, Akira; Onabe, Fumihiko; Suguri, Nobuhiko.

In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3, 09.1997, p. 182-188.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Sizing mechanism of emulsion rosin size-alum systems was studied by model experiments using 13C-labeld fatty acids and solid-state 13C-NMR analysis of the fatty acid-sized handsheets. Anionic and cationic fatty acid emulsion sizes were prepared, and were used as internal sizes with alum for making handsheets. Also soaking treatments into fatty acid / chloroform solutions were applied to alum-treated handsheets. Sizing behavior of fatty acids in these internal sizing and soaking treatments were first studied, and then the structures of fatty acid components in the handsheets were analyzed in terms of chemical shifts of 13C-carbonyl carbons of fatty acids by solid-state 13C-NMR. The fatty acid emulsion sizes prepared from mixtures of stearic and palmitic acids gave sizing features to handsheets more efficiently than a commercial emulsion rosin size. Solid-state 13C-NMR analysis revealed that most of fatty acid components in handsheets prepared with the fatty acid emulsion sizes and alum were in the free acid form without forming aluminum salts. Therefore, probably also in the case of emulsion rosin size-alum systems, most of rosin size components in the papersheet are in the free acid form, and these free rosin acids contribute to the sizing features. When handsheets prepared with 0-4{\%} alum without any internal sizes were soaked in fatty acid / chloroform solutions, a clear difference in sizing degrees was observed between non-alum handsheets and alum-treated ones: +0 s for the blank (0{\%} alum) handsheet (S1) and 40 s for the 4{\%} alum-treated handsheet (S2). However, both NMR patterns and spin-lattice relaxation time of carbonyl carbons of fatty acid components were almost identical between S1 and S2. Thus, in the soaking treatment, the fatty acid components were also present as free acid structures in handsheets without forming aluminum salts. The distinct effect of aluminum compounds in handsheets after soaking treatments is not yet clarified.",
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