Sleep- and Non-Sleep-Related Hallucinations-Relationship to Ghost Tales and Their Classifications

Hirokazu Furuya, Koji Ikezoe, Hiroshi Shigeto, Yasumasa Ohyagi, Hajime Arahata, Ei ichi Araki, Naoki Fujii

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To categorize four types of sleep- and non-sleep-related hallucinations experienced by normal people and classify ghost or ghost-like stories by these categories. A total of 183 reliable tales of ghosts [41 from "Tohno Monogatari" (Tohno Folktales) and 142 from "Nihon Kaidan Shu" (Ghosts Tales of Japan)] are classified into hallucinations that are sleep-related hallucinations [hypnagogic hallucination-like (HyH) and REM sleep behavior disorder or somnambulism-like (RBDS) tales] and sleep-unrelated [vivid hallucination-like (VH) and highway hypnosis-like (HHy) tales] according to the criteria. Sixty to 70% of these tales can be classified into these four types of hallucinations. Further, sleep-related hallucinations increased from 17.0% to 36.6% in about 40 years. Our criteria will be useful to classify hallucinations experienced by normal people and to elucidate the mechanisms of these kinds of hallucinations experienced in neurodegenerative or psychological disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-238
Number of pages7
JournalDreaming
Volume19
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

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