So-called "bifocal tumors" with diabetes insipidus and negative tumor markers: Are they all germinoma?

Masayuki Kanamori, Hirokazu Takami, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Takashi Sasayama, Koji Yoshimoto, Teiji Tominaga, Akihiro Inoue, Naokado Ikeda, Atsushi Kambe, Toshihiro Kumabe, Masahide Matsuda, Shota Tanaka, Manabu Natsumeda, Ken-Ichiro Matsuda, Masahiro Nonaka, Kurihara Jun, Masayoshi Yamaoka, Naoki Kagawa, Naoki Shinojima, Tetsuya NegotoYukiko Nakahara, Yoshiki Arakawa, Seiji Hatazaki, Hiroaki Shimizu, Atsuo Yoshino, Hiroshi Abe, Jiro Akimoto, Yu Kawanishi, Tomonari Suzuki, Atsushi Natsume, Motoo Nagane, Yukinori Akiyama, Dai Keino, Tadateru Fukami, Takahiro Tomita, Kohei Kanaya, Tsutomu Tokuyama, Shuichi Izumoto, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Daisuke Kuga, Shohei Yamamoto, Ryogo Anei, Takeo Uzuka, Junya Fukai, Noriyuki Kijima, Keita Terashima, Koichi Ichimura, Ryo Nishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Delphi consensus statements on the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs) failed to reach agreements on the statement that the cases with 1) pineal and neurohypophyseal bifocal lesion, 2) with diabetes insipidus, and 3) with negative tumor markers can be diagnosed as germinoma without histological verification. To answer this, multicenter retrospective analysis was performed.

METHODS: A questionnaire on clinical findings, histological diagnosis, and details of surgical procedures was sent to 86 neurosurgical and 35 pediatrics departments in Japan.

RESULTS: Fifty-one institutes reported 132 cases that fulfilled the three criteria. Tissue sampling was performed in 91 cases from pineal (n = 44), neurohypophyseal (n = 32), both (n = 6) and distant (n = 9) lesions. Histological diagnosis was established in 89 cases: pure germinoma or germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells in 82 (92.1%) cases, germinoma and mature teratoma in two cases, and granulomatous inflammation in two cases. Histological diagnosis was not established in two cases. Although no tumors other than GCTs were identified, three (3.4%) patients had non-germinomatous GCTs (NGGCTs). None of the patients developed permanent complications after endoscopic or stereotactic biopsy. Thirty-nine patients underwent simultaneous procedure for acute hydrocephalus without permanent complications, and hydrocephalus was controlled in 94.9% of them.

CONCLUSION: All patients who fulfilled the three criteria had GCTs or granulomatous inflammation, but not other types of tumors. However, no less than 3.4% of the patients had NGGCTs. Considering the safety and the effects of simultaneous procedures for acute hydrocephalus, biopsy was recommended in such patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeuro-Oncology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Aug 20 2020

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