Indonesia is one of the largest teak timber producers in the world. The Javanese State Forest Company has been a major producer of teak timber in Indonesia; however, log production decreased drastically due to severe illegal logging after the collapse of Suharto regime. In contrast, small-scale private forests (PFs) owned by local farmers have expanded and are expected to be a new source of teak timber. Long rotation is a critical factor in producing a larger diameter log with a higher heartwood proportion. However, harvest timing in PFs is traditionally decided based on individual farmers’ needs even if trees are still young and of small diameter. Therefore, traditional harvesting is an obstacle to producing high-quality teak timber. The objectives of this study are to (1) identify the household economies and PF management styles of local farmers, (2) characterize the local farmers who conduct traditional harvesting, and (3) suggest key considerations for PF policymaking. Key informant interviews and semi-structured interviews with local farmers were conducted in three villages in Gunungkidul district, Yogyakarta Special Region. The study identified the household economies, the ownership and management structures, and the traditional harvesting in PFs in the three villages, and reaffirmed diversity and complexity of PFs. It appears that PF management is influenced by topographic and socioeconomic conditions and differs widely across villages. Therefore, it is important to consider the diversity and complexity of PFs in PF policymaking.
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