Cytokines are important intercellular communication tools for immunity. Most cytokines utilize the JAK-STAT and Ras-ERK pathways to promote gene transcription and proliferation; however, this signaling is tightly regulated. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family and Spred family are a representative negative regulators of the JAK-STAT pathway and the Ras-ERK pathway, respectively. The SOCS family regulates the differentiation and function of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, and regulatory T cells, and is involved in immune tolerance, anergy, and exhaustion. Spred family proteins have been shown to inactivate Ras by recruiting the Ras-GTPase neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) protein. Human genetic analysis has shown that SOCS family members are strongly associated with autoimmune diseases, allergies, and tumorigenesis, and SPRED1 is involved in NF1-like syndromes and tumors. We also identified the NR4a family of nuclear receptors as a key transcription factor for immune tolerance that suppresses cytokine expression and induces various immuno-regulatory molecules including SOCS1.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)