Soft-Hair-Enhanced Entanglement beyond Page Curves in a Black Hole Evaporation Qubit Model

Masahiro Hotta, Yasusada Nambu, Koji Yamaguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a model with multiple qubits that reproduces the thermal properties of four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes (BHs) by simultaneously taking account of the emission of Hawking particles and the zero-energy soft-hair evaporation at the horizon. The results verify that the entanglement entropy between a qubit and other subsystems, including emitted radiation, is much larger than the BH entropy analogue of the qubit, as opposed to the Page curve prediction. Our result suggests that early Hawking radiation is entangled with soft hair and that late Hawking radiation can be highly entangled with the degrees of freedom of a BH, avoiding the emergence of a firewall at the horizon.

Original languageEnglish
Article number181301
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - May 4 2018
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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