An extracellular polysaccharide, AC-1, produced by Acetobacter polysaccharogenes is composed of β-(1,4)glucan with branches of glucosyl residues. We found that AC-1 showed a strong activity to induce production of interleukin-12 p40 and tumor necrosis factor-α by macrophage cell lines in vitro. Cellulase treatment completely abolished the activity of AC-1 to induce tumor necrosis factor-α production by macrophages, whereas treatment of AC-1 with polymyxin B or proteinase did not affect the activity. Results of experiments using Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice and TLR4-transfected human cell line indicated that TLR4 is involved in pattern recognition of AC-1. In vivo administration of AC-1 significantly reduced the serum levels of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE and interleukin-4 production by T cells in response to OVA in mice immunized with OVA. AC-1, a soluble branched β-(1,4)glucan may be useful in prevention and treatment of allergic disorders with IgE production.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology