We herein present the case of a 77-year-old man who had fever and right hypochondriac pain. He visited his doctor and underwent contrast computed tomography (CT), and he was suspected to have a liver abscess. He received an antibiotic treatment and his symptoms soon disappeared, but the tumor did not get smaller and its density on contrast CT image got stronger. He underwent biopsy and moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was found. Extended left hepatic and caudate lobectomy was performed. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated HCC with narrowing and occlusion both in the arteries and portal veins associated with mild chronic inflammation. The mechanisms of spontaneous regression of HCC, such as immunological reactions and tumor hypoxia, have been proposed. In our case, histological examination showed the same findings. However, the mechanism is complex, and therefore further investigations are essential to elucidate it.
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