Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an extremely rare phenomenon. We herein report the case of a 73-year-old man who showed the spontaneous regression of multiple pulmonary recurrences of HCC that had occurred after hepatectomy. The patient was undergoing dialysis due to diabetic renal failure when ultrasonography revealed a liver tumor (diameter ∼ 10 cm). A preoperative diagnosis of HCC with hepatic vein thrombosis was made. The liver function was well preserved and then the right hepatic vein area was resected. Two months after hepatectomy the α-fetoprotein level increased, and multiple lung nodules were observed on follow-up computed tomography. A diagnosis of multiple lung metastases was made, but no therapy was started because of the patient's renal failure. Five months after hepatectomy the α-fetoprotein level normalized, and the metastases regressed completely. The patient is now doing well without any recurrence at 13 months after the surgery. The associated literature on spontaneous HCC regression is also reviewed.
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