Fish embryo toxicology is important because embryos are considered more susceptible than adult fish to the effects of toxic chemicals. Recently, fish embryo bioassay was proposed to replace the conventional fish acute toxicity chemical test of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines because it offers the advantages of fewer reagents, easy handling, and efficient data production. To accelerate the establishment of a chemical toxicity database for the protection of environmental and human health, we need to determine whether the conventional toxicity test can safely be replaced by such fish embryo toxicity tests. For instance, it is unclear how the presence of the chorion moderates the toxic effects of some chemicals. If such chemical toxicities do differ between embryos and, for example, the larval stage, then different toxic effects should appear in later life. We tested the later-life effects of the neurotoxic insecticide carbaryl at sublethal concentrations (0 [control] and 5 and 10 mg/L) in embryos and posthatch larvae of the freshwater fish medaka, Oryzias latipes. Although embryos exposed until hatching showed multiple developmental malformations and reductions in subsequent survival rates over three months, no significant reduction was observed in tolerance to starvation for 7 d and in intrinsic population growth rate (r). Exposure of larvae for 96 h resulted in dose-responsive vertebral fracture, significant reduction in tolerance to starvation for 7 d, and reduced three-month survival rate; r was reduced significantly and consistently. These results suggested that posthatch larvae were more susceptible than embryos to carbaryl exposure and that the toxic cascades may differ between larvae and embryos. The influences of carbaryl exposure on population growth rate differed significantly with developmental stage.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis