Introduction: Cases of intractable dental implant require vertical bone augmentation; however, the predicted bone height and volume are difficult to obtain. In vertical bone augmentation, the contact surface between the scaffold and the bone is limited to the bottom face of the scaffold. Furthermore, the strength decrease caused by scaffold resorption leads to collapse of the augmented site, leading to a decrease in the bone volume and height. Objectives: To promote bone ingrowth, we fabricated carbonate apatite (i.e., bone mineral) honeycomb (HC) scaffolds with uniaxial channels vertically penetrating the scaffold. Furthermore, we controlled the scaffold resorption rate, eventually the endurability for compression, and the bone height and volume by controlling the strut thickness. Methods: The channel aperture was controlled to be 230–260 μm to promote bone ingrowth. Furthermore, the strut thicknesses of the HC scaffolds were adjusted to 100, 200, and 300 μm to control the scaffold resorption; these scaffolds were designated as HC100, HC200, and HC300, respectively. Results: At 4 weeks post-implantation on rabbit calvarium, all scaffolds had already vertically augmented new bone close to the top surface of the scaffold. In the following 8 weeks, the height and amount of new bone in all scaffolds increased. Notably, HC300 was resorbed synchronously with new bone formation, allowing it to endure the compression from the fasciae for 12 weeks post-implantation. Furthermore, HC300 formed larger-diameter blood vessels than those of HC100 and HC200. Conclusion: The HC scaffolds surpassed the various combined scaffolds and growth factors or stem cells in the ability for vertical bone augmentation. Thus, the HC structure is inherently suitable for vertical bone augmentation. Notably, the HC scaffolds with 300-μm-thick struts enhanced both new bone formation and angiogenesis. This study revealed a structurally suitable design for achieving an outstanding outcome in vertical bone augmentation.
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