The C4 grass Arundinella hirta exhibits a unique C4 anatomy, with isolated Kranz cells (distinctive cells) and C4-type expression of photosynthetic enzymes in the leaf sheath and stem as well as in the leaf blade. The border zones between these organs are pale green. Those between the leaf blade and sheath and between the sheath and stem are called the lamina joint and sheath pulvinus, respectively, and are involved in gravity sensing. We investigated the structure and localization of C3 and C4 photosynthetic enzymes in these tissues. In both zones the epidermis lacked stomata. The inner tissue was composed of parenchyma cells and vascular bundles. The parenchyma cells were densely packed with small intercellular spaces and contained granal chloroplasts with large starch grains. No C4-type cellular differentiation was recognized. Western blot analysis showed that the lamina joint and pulvinus accumulated substantial amounts of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate,Pi dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). Immunogold electron microscopy revealed PEPC in the cytosol and both PPDK and rubisco in the chloroplasts of parenchyma cells, suggesting the occurrence of C3 and C4 enzymes within a single type of chlorenchyma cell. These data indicate that the lamina joint and pulvinus have unique expression patterns of C3 and C4 enzymes, unlike those in C4-type anatomy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Plant Science