Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

R. U. Abbasi, M. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Anderson, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, M. J. Chae, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, W. R. Cho, T. Fujii, M. Fukushima, T. Goto, W. HanlonY. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Honda, D. Ikeda, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, H. Ito, D. Ivanov, C. C.H. Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, K. Kawata, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Kitamura, Y. Kitamura, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, J. Lan, S. I. Lim, J. P. Lundquist, K. Machida, K. Martens, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, M. Minamino, Y. Mukai, I. Myers, K. Nagasawa, S. Nagataki, T. Nakamura, T. Nonaka, A. Nozato, S. Ogio, J. Ogura, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, T. Okuda, M. Ono, A. Oshima, S. Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, D. C. Rodriguez, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, N. Sakurai, A. L. Sampson, L. M. Scott, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, H. S. Shin, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, R. W. Springer, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. Stroman, T. Suzawa, M. Takamura, M. Takeda, R. Takeishi, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, F. Urban, G. Vasiloff, T. Wong, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, K. Yashiro, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, R. Zollinger, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-62
Number of pages14
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume64
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015

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drums
cosmic rays
observatories
telescopes
detectors
energy
pattern recognition
elongation
equivalence
methodology
iron
high resolution
predictions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode. / Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C.H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 64, 04.2015, p. 49-62.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abbasi, RU, Abe, M, Abu-Zayyad, T, Allen, M, Anderson, R, Azuma, R, Barcikowski, E, Belz, JW, Bergman, DR, Blake, SA, Cady, R, Chae, MJ, Cheon, BG, Chiba, J, Chikawa, M, Cho, WR, Fujii, T, Fukushima, M, Goto, T, Hanlon, W, Hayashi, Y, Hayashida, N, Hibino, K, Honda, K, Ikeda, D, Inoue, N, Ishii, T, Ishimori, R, Ito, H, Ivanov, D, Jui, CCH, Kadota, K, Kakimoto, F, Kalashev, O, Kasahara, K, Kawai, H, Kawakami, S, Kawana, S, Kawata, K, Kido, E, Kim, HB, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kitamura, S, Kitamura, Y, Kuzmin, V, Kwon, YJ, Lan, J, Lim, SI, Lundquist, JP, Machida, K, Martens, K, Matsuda, T, Matsuyama, T, Matthews, JN, Minamino, M, Mukai, Y, Myers, I, Nagasawa, K, Nagataki, S, Nakamura, T, Nonaka, T, Nozato, A, Ogio, S, Ogura, J, Ohnishi, M, Ohoka, H, Oki, K, Okuda, T, Ono, M, Oshima, A, Ozawa, S, Park, IH, Pshirkov, MS, Rodriguez, DC, Rubtsov, G, Ryu, D, Sagawa, H, Sakurai, N, Sampson, AL, Scott, LM, Shah, PD, Shibata, F, Shibata, T, Shimodaira, H, Shin, BK, Shin, HS, Smith, JD, Sokolsky, P, Springer, RW, Stokes, BT, Stratton, SR, Stroman, T, Suzawa, T, Takamura, M, Takeda, M, Takeishi, R, Taketa, A, Takita, M, Tameda, Y, Tanaka, H, Tanaka, K, Tanaka, M, Thomas, SB, Thomson, GB, Tinyakov, P, Tkachev, I, Tokuno, H, Tomida, T, Troitsky, S, Tsunesada, Y, Tsutsumi, K, Uchihori, Y, Udo, S, Urban, F, Vasiloff, G, Wong, T, Yamane, R, Yamaoka, H, Yamazaki, K, Yang, J, Yashiro, K, Yoneda, Y, Yoshida, S, Yoshii, H, Zollinger, R & Zundel, Z 2015, 'Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 64, pp. 49-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.11.004
Abbasi, R. U. ; Abe, M. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Allen, M. ; Anderson, R. ; Azuma, R. ; Barcikowski, E. ; Belz, J. W. ; Bergman, D. R. ; Blake, S. A. ; Cady, R. ; Chae, M. J. ; Cheon, B. G. ; Chiba, J. ; Chikawa, M. ; Cho, W. R. ; Fujii, T. ; Fukushima, M. ; Goto, T. ; Hanlon, W. ; Hayashi, Y. ; Hayashida, N. ; Hibino, K. ; Honda, K. ; Ikeda, D. ; Inoue, N. ; Ishii, T. ; Ishimori, R. ; Ito, H. ; Ivanov, D. ; Jui, C. C.H. ; Kadota, K. ; Kakimoto, F. ; Kalashev, O. ; Kasahara, K. ; Kawai, H. ; Kawakami, S. ; Kawana, S. ; Kawata, K. ; Kido, E. ; Kim, H. B. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kitamura, S. ; Kitamura, Y. ; Kuzmin, V. ; Kwon, Y. J. ; Lan, J. ; Lim, S. I. ; Lundquist, J. P. ; Machida, K. ; Martens, K. ; Matsuda, T. ; Matsuyama, T. ; Matthews, J. N. ; Minamino, M. ; Mukai, Y. ; Myers, I. ; Nagasawa, K. ; Nagataki, S. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nonaka, T. ; Nozato, A. ; Ogio, S. ; Ogura, J. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohoka, H. ; Oki, K. ; Okuda, T. ; Ono, M. ; Oshima, A. ; Ozawa, S. ; Park, I. H. ; Pshirkov, M. S. ; Rodriguez, D. C. ; Rubtsov, G. ; Ryu, D. ; Sagawa, H. ; Sakurai, N. ; Sampson, A. L. ; Scott, L. M. ; Shah, P. D. ; Shibata, F. ; Shibata, T. ; Shimodaira, H. ; Shin, B. K. ; Shin, H. S. ; Smith, J. D. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Springer, R. W. ; Stokes, B. T. ; Stratton, S. R. ; Stroman, T. ; Suzawa, T. ; Takamura, M. ; Takeda, M. ; Takeishi, R. ; Taketa, A. ; Takita, M. ; Tameda, Y. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tanaka, M. ; Thomas, S. B. ; Thomson, G. B. ; Tinyakov, P. ; Tkachev, I. ; Tokuno, H. ; Tomida, T. ; Troitsky, S. ; Tsunesada, Y. ; Tsutsumi, K. ; Uchihori, Y. ; Udo, S. ; Urban, F. ; Vasiloff, G. ; Wong, T. ; Yamane, R. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Yamazaki, K. ; Yang, J. ; Yashiro, K. ; Yoneda, Y. ; Yoshida, S. ; Yoshii, H. ; Zollinger, R. ; Zundel, Z. / Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2015 ; Vol. 64. pp. 49-62.
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abstract = "Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.",
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T1 - Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

AU - Abbasi, R. U.

AU - Abe, M.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Allen, M.

AU - Anderson, R.

AU - Azuma, R.

AU - Barcikowski, E.

AU - Belz, J. W.

AU - Bergman, D. R.

AU - Blake, S. A.

AU - Cady, R.

AU - Chae, M. J.

AU - Cheon, B. G.

AU - Chiba, J.

AU - Chikawa, M.

AU - Cho, W. R.

AU - Fujii, T.

AU - Fukushima, M.

AU - Goto, T.

AU - Hanlon, W.

AU - Hayashi, Y.

AU - Hayashida, N.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Honda, K.

AU - Ikeda, D.

AU - Inoue, N.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ishimori, R.

AU - Ito, H.

AU - Ivanov, D.

AU - Jui, C. C.H.

AU - Kadota, K.

AU - Kakimoto, F.

AU - Kalashev, O.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Kawai, H.

AU - Kawakami, S.

AU - Kawana, S.

AU - Kawata, K.

AU - Kido, E.

AU - Kim, H. B.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kitamura, S.

AU - Kitamura, Y.

AU - Kuzmin, V.

AU - Kwon, Y. J.

AU - Lan, J.

AU - Lim, S. I.

AU - Lundquist, J. P.

AU - Machida, K.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Matsuda, T.

AU - Matsuyama, T.

AU - Matthews, J. N.

AU - Minamino, M.

AU - Mukai, Y.

AU - Myers, I.

AU - Nagasawa, K.

AU - Nagataki, S.

AU - Nakamura, T.

AU - Nonaka, T.

AU - Nozato, A.

AU - Ogio, S.

AU - Ogura, J.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohoka, H.

AU - Oki, K.

AU - Okuda, T.

AU - Ono, M.

AU - Oshima, A.

AU - Ozawa, S.

AU - Park, I. H.

AU - Pshirkov, M. S.

AU - Rodriguez, D. C.

AU - Rubtsov, G.

AU - Ryu, D.

AU - Sagawa, H.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Sampson, A. L.

AU - Scott, L. M.

AU - Shah, P. D.

AU - Shibata, F.

AU - Shibata, T.

AU - Shimodaira, H.

AU - Shin, B. K.

AU - Shin, H. S.

AU - Smith, J. D.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

AU - Springer, R. W.

AU - Stokes, B. T.

AU - Stratton, S. R.

AU - Stroman, T.

AU - Suzawa, T.

AU - Takamura, M.

AU - Takeda, M.

AU - Takeishi, R.

AU - Taketa, A.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tameda, Y.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Thomas, S. B.

AU - Thomson, G. B.

AU - Tinyakov, P.

AU - Tkachev, I.

AU - Tokuno, H.

AU - Tomida, T.

AU - Troitsky, S.

AU - Tsunesada, Y.

AU - Tsutsumi, K.

AU - Uchihori, Y.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Urban, F.

AU - Vasiloff, G.

AU - Wong, T.

AU - Yamane, R.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Yamazaki, K.

AU - Yang, J.

AU - Yashiro, K.

AU - Yoneda, Y.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Yoshii, H.

AU - Zollinger, R.

AU - Zundel, Z.

PY - 2015/4

Y1 - 2015/4

N2 - Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

AB - Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

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JO - Astroparticle Physics

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