In order to construct three-dimensional shape models of large-scale architectural structures using a laser range finder, a number of range images are normally taken from various viewpoints, and these images are aligned using post-processing procedures such as the ICP algorithm. However, in general, before applying the ICP algorithm, these range images must be registered to roughly correct positions by a human operator in order to converge to precise positions. In addition, range images must be made to sufficiently overlap each other by taking dense images from close viewpoints. On the other hand, if the positions of the laser range finder at viewpoints can be identified pre-cisely, local range images can be directly converted to the global coordinate system through a simple transformation calculation. The present paper proposes a new measurement system for large-scale architectural structures using a group of multiple robots and an on-board laser range finder. Each measurement position is identified by a highly precise positioning technique called Cooperative Positioning System (CPS), which utilizes the characteristics of the multiple-robot system. The proposed system can construct 3D shapes of large-scale architectural structures without any post-processing procedure such as the ICP algorithm or dense range measurements. Measurement experiments in unknown and large indoor/outdoor environments are successfully carried out using the newly developed measurement system consisting of three mobile robots named CPS-V.