Introduction: Intraportal islet transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, despite being minimally invasive, the method has some limitations, such as short-term graft loss, portal venous thrombosis, and difficulty in collecting adequate amounts of islets. Subcutaneous islet transplantation on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) sheets has been suggested to overcome these limitations, and in this study, we have examined its feasibility in T1DM pigs. Methods: Inguinal subcutaneous fat was harvested from young pigs and then isolated and cultured adequate ADSCs to prepare sheets. Islets were isolated from the pancreases of mature pigs and seeded on the ADSC sheets. T1DM pigs were generated by total pancreatectomy, and ADSC sheets with transplanted islets were administered subcutaneously to the waist (n = 2). The effects of the islets on the ADSC sheets and on blood glucose levels were evaluated. Insulin secretion was measured by insulin stimulation index. Results: Islet viability was higher on ADSCs compared to islets alone (91.8 ± 4.3 vs. 81.7 ± 4.1%). The insulin stimulation index revealed higher glucose sensitivity of islets on ADSC sheets compared to islets alone (2.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3). After transplantation, the blood glucose levels of two pigs were within the normal range, and sensitive insulin secretion was confirmed by intravenous glucose tolerance tests. After graftectomy, decreased insulin secretion and hyperglycemia were observed. Conclusions: Subcutaneous islet transplantation using ADSC sheets can regulate the blood glucose levels of T1DM pigs.