Subnanomolar ion detection by stripping voltammetry with solid-supported thin polymeric membrane

Yushin Kim, Patrick J. Rodgers, Ryoichi Ishimatsu, Shigeru Amemiya

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Abstract

Subnanomolar limits of detection (LODs) are obtained for stripping voltammetry based on ion transfer at the interface between the aqueous sample and the thin polymeric membrane supported with a solid electrode. It has been predicted theoretically that a lower LOD can be obtained for a more lipophilic analyte ion, which can be preconcentrated at a higher equilibrium concentration in the solid-supported thin polymeric membrane to enhance a stripping current response. This study is the first to experimentally confirm the general theoretical prediction for both cationic and anionic analytes. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a subnanomolar LOD of (8 ± 4) × 10-11 M tetrapropylammonium is significantly lower than a LOD of less lipophilic tetraethylammonium. Importantly, stripping voltammetry of the cationic analytes is enabled by newly introducing an oxidatively doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film as the intermediate layer between a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane and a Au electrode. On the other hand, an undoped poly(3-octylthiophene) film is used as an intermediate layer for voltammetric detection of a lipophilic inorganic anion, hexafluoroarsenate, an arsenical biocide found recently in wastewater. A LOD of (9 ± 2) × 10-11 M hexafluoroarsenate thus obtained by ion-transfer stripping voltammetry is comparable to a LOD of 80 pM by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with anion-exchange chromatography. Great sensitivity for a lipophilic ion is potentially useful for environmental analysis because high lipophilicity of an ion is relevant to its bioaccumulation and toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7262-7270
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume81
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry

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