Graft loss characterized by sudden deterioration after initial favorable recovery of the allograft function within the first week after liver transplantation was reported as “seventh-day syndrome.” The outcome of seventh-day syndrome is extremely poor, and its etiology and management are not still established. We herein reported a seventh-day syndrome case who was successfully managed by immediate desensitization after liver retransplantation and reviewed by English literature. A 19-year-old woman who had underwent the first liver transplantation when she was 2-year-old. She developed graft failure due to chronic rejection and was on the waiting list for retransplantation. An evaluation of panel-reactive antibody showed high positivity, but there were no preformed donor-specific antibodies. Plasma exchange was performed one-time just before retransplantation and the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased. The second liver was successfully transplanted, and post-operative course was uneventful. However, on post-operative day 5, her body temperature elevated and thereafter, her liver enzymes dramatically elevated. We immediately started a desensitization consisted of plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and anti-CD20 antibody. The peak level of AST and ALT was 5799 IU/L and 3960 IU/L, respectively. The pathological findings of liver biopsy revealed some central venous endotheliitis and massive centrilobular hemorrhagic hepatocellular necrosis. These findings were not typical for antibody-mediated rejection, but the desensitization was effective and liver graft was successfully rescued. The only way to prevent early graft loss due to seventh-day syndrome is thought to be an immediate decision to start intensive desensitization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health