Donor-derived hematological malignancies have been recognized as rare but serious late complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Most cases in the literature were diagnosed as myelodysplastic syndrome or acute leukemia, with very few malignant lymphoma reported. We herein present another case of donor-derived Burkitt lymphoma that occurred 9 years after allo-HSCT under continued administration of immunosuppressants for chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The patient achieved a partial response after rituximab-combined intensive chemotherapy. To reduce the risk of relapse and to avoid organ toxicities due to repeated chemotherapies, we performed upfront high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue using donor-derived CD34+ cells, called pseudo-autologous HSCT (pASCT), and adjusted immunosuppressants appropriately. The patient remained disease-free for 23 months after pASCT without exacerbation of cGVHD. Although the observation period has been relatively short and longer follow-up is needed, pASCT may be a feasible option for donor-derived lymphoma even in patients with active cGVHD.
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