Analyzing functional interactions between small compounds and proteins is indispensable in genomic drug discovery. Since rich information on various compound-protein interactions is available in recent molecular databases, strong demands for making best use of such databases require to invent powerful methods to help us find new functional compoundprotein pairs on a large scale. We present the succinct interval-splitting tree algorithm (SITA) that efficiently performs similarity search in databases for compound-protein pairs with respect to both binary fingerprints and real-valued properties. SITA achieves both time and space efficiency by developing the data structure called interval-splitting trees, which enables to efficiently prune the useless portions of search space, and by incorporating the ideas behind wavelet tree, a succinct data structure to compactly represent trees. We experimentally test SITA on the ability to retrieve similar compound-protein pairs/substrate-product pairs for a query from large databases with over 200 million compoundprotein pairs/substrate-product pairs and show that SITA performs better than other possible approaches.