In mid-January 2009, sudden changes in circulation occurred in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere. Convective activity situated over the equatorial Maritime Continent showed an abrupt weakening, whereas that over the South American to African sectors became stronger. Changes also occurred in the latitudinal structure; convective activity in the Northern Hemisphere became weaker, whereas that in the Southern Hemisphere became stronger. The change in convective activity took place in association with a change in tropical circulation, from east-west to north-south type (i.e.,fromWalker-toHadley-type circulation). Almost simultaneouslywiththeseeventsinthe troposphere, achange in meridional circulation occurred in the stratosphere during a record-breaking stratospheric sudden warming event in January 2009. Stratospheric tropical temperature showed a decrease in response to a strengthening of the hemispherical meridional circulation. In the present study, we show how the stratospheric and tropospheric circulation changes are dynamically coupled.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science