Palladium(II) complexes of glycoconjugated porphyrin and pyrrolidine-fused chlorin were prepared to examine sugar and heavy atom effects on in vitro photocytotoxicity. Cellular uptake into HeLa cells was enhanced by introducing sugar units regardless of other features, such as the central ion (free base or palladium(II) ion) and the ring structure (porphyrin or chlorin). The palladium(II) complex of glycoconjugated pyrrolidine-fused chlorin (PdPC2) exerted an excellent degree of photocytotoxicity not only on HeLa cells, but also on metastatic B16-BL6 cells, weakly metastatic B16F1 cells, and metastatic 4T1 cells. However, free-base glycoconjugated pyrrolidine-fused chlorin (PC2) also exerted similar or much higher photocytotoxicity rather than PdPC2. Therefore, the palladium(II) ion did not improve the in vitro photocytotoxicity of PC2. The enhanced singlet oxygen generation of palladium(II) complexes (i.e., the heavy atom effect) was confirmed at least in O2-saturated D 2O. In addition, the formation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical were also detected in O2-saturated phosphate buffered saline. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation efficiency, which is the product of the (relative) quantum yield of each ROS and the light absorbing ability, did not fit the trends of photocytotoxicity seen for the photosensitizers. In our glycoconjugated photosensitizers tested, the best indicator of the photocytotoxicity was found to be the light absorbing ability (namely, the oscillator strength in the wavelength region applied in the photocytotoxicity test). These results indicated that photochemical characteristics of glycoconjugated photosensitizers were notably susceptible to the microenvironment. The biological characteristics, such as the sugar effect, were a much more reliable approach to improving the photocytotoxicity of photosensitizers.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Organic Chemistry