Supplementary immunocytochemistry of hepatocyte growth factor production in activated macrophages early in muscle regeneration

Shoko Sawano, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai Khoi Q. Do, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Ryuichi Tatsumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Regenerative intramuscular motor-innervation is thought to reside in the spatiotemporal expression of axon-guidance molecules. Our previous studies showed that resident myogenic stem cells, satellite cells, up-regulate a secreted neural-chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) during the early-differentiation period, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) elevated in injured muscle. However, a paracrine source of the HGF release is still unknown. Very recently, we proposed a possible contribution of anti-inflammatory macrophages (CD206-positive M2) by showing that M2 cells infiltrate predominantly at the early-differentiation phase (3-5 days post-injury) and produce/secrete large amounts of HGF. However, in understanding this concept there still remains a critical need to examine if phagocytotic pro-inflammatory macrophages (CD86-positive M1), another activated-phenotype still present at the early-differentiation phase concerned, produce HGF upon muscle injury. The current immunocytochemical study demonstrated that the HGF expression is negative for M1 prepared from cardiotoxin-injured Tibialis anterior muscle at day 5, in contrast to the intense fluorescent-signal of M2 served as a positive control. This supplementary result advances our understanding of a spatiotemporal burst of HGF secretion from M2 populations (not M1) to impact Sema3A expression, which ensures a coordinated delay in attachment of motoneuron terminals onto damaged and generating fibers during the early phase of muscle regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)994-1000
Number of pages7
JournalAnimal Science Journal
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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