Regenerative intramuscular motor-innervation is thought to reside in the spatiotemporal expression of axon-guidance molecules. Our previous studies showed that resident myogenic stem cells, satellite cells, up-regulate a secreted neural-chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) during the early-differentiation period, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) elevated in injured muscle. However, a paracrine source of the HGF release is still unknown. Very recently, we proposed a possible contribution of anti-inflammatory macrophages (CD206-positive M2) by showing that M2 cells infiltrate predominantly at the early-differentiation phase (3-5 days post-injury) and produce/secrete large amounts of HGF. However, in understanding this concept there still remains a critical need to examine if phagocytotic pro-inflammatory macrophages (CD86-positive M1), another activated-phenotype still present at the early-differentiation phase concerned, produce HGF upon muscle injury. The current immunocytochemical study demonstrated that the HGF expression is negative for M1 prepared from cardiotoxin-injured Tibialis anterior muscle at day 5, in contrast to the intense fluorescent-signal of M2 served as a positive control. This supplementary result advances our understanding of a spatiotemporal burst of HGF secretion from M2 populations (not M1) to impact Sema3A expression, which ensures a coordinated delay in attachment of motoneuron terminals onto damaged and generating fibers during the early phase of muscle regeneration.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)