Aim: This study aimed at investigating the survival impact of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) recurrence as pulmonary metastasis. Methods: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 142 patients who underwent curative resection for PDAC at our institution between 2003 and 2012. Clinicopathological features were compared among patients stratified according to the recurrence pattern and pulmonary metastasis treatment strategy. Results: Patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 96), distal (n = 42), or total pancreatectomy (n = 4). At the last follow-up, 99 patients had developed recurrent post-resection PDAC, including 14 cases of isolated pulmonary recurrence. The median overall survival was significantly longer for patients with isolated pulmonary recurrence (40.3 months) than with other metastases (20.9 months; HR 5.85; p = 0.0156). Two patients underwent resection for isolated pulmonary recurrence, and both survived for ∼70 months after primary resection. Conclusion: Patients with first recurrence of PDAC as pulmonary metastasis had a better prognosis than patients with other types of metastases. Moreover, when isolated pulmonary metastasis is controlled for a certain period, pulmonary resection is likely to improve patient survival.
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