Despite the carcinogenic and other adverse health effects ofchloramphenicol (CAP), it is frequently detected in different water sources (e.g., groundwater, surface water, wastewater effluents, etc.) due to ongoing, illegal, and abusive application of CAP in veterinary medicine. Although extensive research has been carried out to develop effective treatment technologies to remove the persistent CAP from aqueous mediums, yet there is no critical review of these studies to the best of our reach This review will be the first in the literature to comprehensively summarize the state-of-the-art treatment techniques for CAP removal from water. We report the removal of CAP by adsorption, biodegradation, nanoscale zerovalent iron technology (nZVI), and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The result shows that carbon-based adsorbents have more qmax equal 892.86 mg/g for Porous carbon material from Enteromorpha prolifera. The Langmuir- Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics model were reported to best describe the isotherm and kinetic model respectively. Removing the CAP via biodegradation would achieve the advantages of low operating costs, and environmental friendliness. The process of AOPs among the various treatment options can be a promising method for CAP degradation in water. This review comprehensively summarizes the state-of-the-art treatment techniques for CAP removal from water. Particularly, serving as an inclusive reference for future researchers to easily define the research gabs in the literature and plan for their future work in developing novel treatment methods to decontaminate CA-contaminated waters.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Materials Chemistry