Selective dehydration of glucose, the most abundant monosaccharide, was examined using a solid acid catalyst individually or a combination of solid acid and base catalysts to form anhydroglucose (levoglucosan) or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), respectively. Glucose was dehydrated to anhydroglucose by acid catalysis in polar aprotic solvents including N,N-dimethylformamide. Amberlyst-15, a strongly acidic ion-exchange resin, functioned as an efficient solid acid catalyst for anhydroglucose production with high selectivity. In the presence of solid base, aldose-ketose isomerization of glucose to fructose preferentially occurred by base catalysis, even in coexistence with the solid acid, resulting in successive dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by acid catalysis with high yield in a one-pot reaction. A combination of Amberlyst-15 and hydrotalcite, an anionic layered clay, afforded high HMF selectivity under a moderate reaction temperature, owing to prevention of anhydroglucose formation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Process Chemistry and Technology