New crown ethers carrying a pendent phenolic chromophore were synthesized. These crown ethers, on dissociation of the phenolic proton, provide lipophilic anions which can extract alkali metal cations into 1,2-dichloroethane by forming highly-colored uncharged metal complexes. Structural effects on the extraction were studied for possible use of these crown ethers as extraction-spectrophotometric reagents selective for alkali metals. The following factors are discussed in detail: (i) nature of the crown ether ring (ring size. aza-crown or standard crown ether), (ii) nature of the pendent phenolic group, and (iii) geometry between the crown ether center and pendent phenolic group. 15-Crown-5 or smaller ring-sized reagents favored the extraction of lithium ion when the basicity of the pendent phenolate was relatively high and a six-membered "chelate" ring was possible for the phenolate and the crown ether-bound metal. 15-Crown-5 type reagents were sodium-selective when an eight-membered "chelate" ring was possible between the phenolate and the crown ether-bound metal. 18-Crown-6 type reagents were generally potassium-selective. However, these selectivities were not absolute, and other structural parameters, steric and conformational, must be considered to explain in detail the selectivities of the individual reagents.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Environmental Chemistry