The present paper reviews biomaterial studies of synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP) as a scaffold of osteoblastic cells. OCP crystals have been suggested to be one of precursor phases in hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal formation in bone and tooth. The recent intensive biomaterials and tissue engineering studies using synthetic OCP disclosed the potential function of OCP as a bioactive material as well as synthetic HA materials due to its highly osteoconductive and biodegradable properties. In vitro studies showed that OCP crystals exhibit a positive effect on osteoblastic cell differentiation. In vivo studies confirmed that the materials of OCP in a granule forms and OCP-based composite materials with natural polymers, such as gelatin and collagen, enhance bone regeneration if implanted in various model bone defects with critical-sized diameters, defined as a defect which does not heal spontaneously throughout the lifetime of the animals. One of particular characteristics of OCP, found as a mechanism to enhance bone regeneration in vivo, is a process of progressive conversion from OCP to HA at physiological conditions. The OCP-HA conversion is accompanied by progressive physicochemical changes of the material properties, which affects the tissue reaction around the crystals where osteoblastic cells are encountered. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in an OCP-based material enhanced bone regeneration in the rat critical-sized calvaria defect more than that by the material alone. The overall results reveal that OCP crystals have an effect on osteoblastic cell differentiation including the differentiation of MSCs in vivo. The evidence collected experimentally in the laboratory was presented.