Aim: The present study aims to investigate the association between serum small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) cholesterol level and the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: A total of 3,080 participants without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged ≥ 40 years, were followed up for a median of 8.3 years, which were divided into two groups, those with serum sdLDL cholesterol levels of ＜35 mg/dL or ≥ 35 mg/dL. Then, subjects were stratified by the status of diabetes, CVD-related comorbidities (defined as the presence of diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or peripheral artery disease), and the CVD risk assessment according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: During the follow-up, 79 subjects developed CHD. The risk for incident CHD was higher in subjects with serum sdLDL cholesterol of ≥ 35 mg/dL than those with sdLDL cholesterol of ＜35 mg/dL (HR 2.09, 95%CI 1.26–3.45) after adjusting for traditional risk factors. In the subgroup analyses, the multivariableadjusted HR for incident CHD increased significantly in those with serum sdLDL cholesterol of ≥ 35 mg/dL among subjects with diabetes (HR 2.76, 95%CI 1.09–7.01), subjects with CVD-related comorbidities (HR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21–5.58), and high-risk category defined as the presence of CVD-related comorbidities or a Suita score of ≥ 56 points (HR 1.93, 95%CI 1.02–3.65). Conclusions: Elevated serum sdLDL cholesterol was associated with the development of CHD even in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Biochemistry, medical