A recent study suggested that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) was associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the clinical impact of PPI use on the outcome of patients receiving ICIs for postoperative recurrent NSCLC is unknown. The outcomes of 95 patients with postoperative recurrence of NSCLC receiving ICIs at 3 medical centers in Japan were analyzed. We conducted adjusted Kaplan–Meier survival analyses with the log-rank test, a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, and a logistic regression analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to minimize the bias arising from the patients’ backgrounds. The IPTW-adjusted Kaplan–Meier curves revealed that the progression-free survival (PFS), but not the overall survival (OS), was significantly longer in patients who did not receive PPIs than in those who did receive them. The IPTW-adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that PPI use was an independent poor prognostic factor for the PFS and OS. Furthermore, in the IPTW-adjusted logistic regression analysis, PPI non-use was an independent predictor of disease control. In this multicenter and retrospective study, PPI use was associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with postoperative recurrence of NSCLC who were receiving ICIs. PPIs should not be prescribed indiscriminately to patients with postoperative recurrence of NSCLC who intend to receive ICIs. These findings should be validated in a future prospective study.
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