The complement component C5 plays important roles in inflammatory responses and complement-mediated cytolysis. In bony fish, although C5 has been identified at the DNA or the protein level in trout, carp and gilthead seabream, only partial C5 sequences are available. The present study was designed to obtain the complete primary structure of C5 from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and to examine its possible structural diversity. Reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction amplification from carp hepatopancreatic RNA resulted in isolation of six distinct C5-like cDNA segments, which were grouped into two divergent types (type I and type II). Using two sequences representative of the two types as probes, two distinct full-length cDNA clones (C5-1 and C5-2) were isolated, in addition to a truncated isoform of C5-1 (C5-1'). The deduced amino acid sequences of C5-1 and C5-2 share 83% identity and predict a typical two-chain structure of the mature protein that lacks the thioester bond, as in C5 from other animals. Southern hybridization of genomic DNA suggested the presence of multiple genes encoding C5-type I and a single gene encoding C5-type II. Interestingly, carp C5-type I contains novel subtypes like C5-1 that have a histidine instead of the well-conserved arginine at the cleavage site for the C5 convertase, both in the complete and truncated forms. Northern blotting analysis suggested that C5-type I and C5-type II are mainly expressed in hepatopancreas, and the expression levels are significantly increased by stimulating carp with lipopolysaccharide or β-1,3-glucan. Possible functional divergence among the C5 isotypes in carp is discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes