Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, and the condition is typified by barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation. Recent studies have characterized various phenotypes and endotypes of AD and elucidated the mechanism. Numerous topical and systemic narrow targeting therapies for AD have been developed according to these findings. Topical medications, including Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist tapinarof, are effective and safe for AD compared to topical corticosteroids. Oral JAK inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies targeting interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-31, IL-33, OX40, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling have displayed outstanding efficacy against moderate-to-severe AD. We are currently in a new era of AD treatment.
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