Billions of years of coevolution shaped the mutually beneficial relationships between metazoans and symbiotic commensal microorganisms. Commensal microorganisms profoundly affect the physiology of the host and provide the host with survival advantages in several ways, while they could also trigger pathogenic immune responses and threaten the well-being of the host. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology enabled the analysis of commensal microbiota, and improvements in the techniques of culturing gut-resident microorganisms and of rearing gnotobiotic rodents have made it possible to assess the effect of individual component of microbial communities on host physiology. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the interactions of commensal microbiota with the host immune system.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy