The linear analysis of the instability due to vertical shear in the dust layer of the solar nebula is performed. The following assumptions are adopted throughout this paper: (1) The self-gravity of the dust layer is neglected. (2) One fluid model is adopted, where the dust aggregates have the same velocity with the gas due to strong coupling by the drag force. (3) The gas is incompressible. The calculations with both the Coriolis and the tidal forces show that the tidal force has a stabilizing effect. The tidal force causes the radial shear in the disk. This radial shear changes the wave number of the mode which is at first unstable, and the mode is eventually stabilized. Thus the behavior of the mode is divided into two stages: (1) the first growth of the unstable mode which is similar to the results without the tidal force, and (2) the subsequent stabilization due to an increase of the wave number by the radial shear. If the midplane dust/gas density ratio is smaller than 2, the stabilization occurs before the unstable mode grows largely. On the other hand, the mode grows faster by one hundred orders of magnitude, if this ratio is larger than 20. Because the critical density of the gravitational instability is a few hundreds times as large as the gas density, the hydrodynamic instability investigated in this paper grows largely before the onset of the gravitational instability. It is expected that the hydrodynamic instability develops turbulence in the dust layer and the dust aggregates are stirred up to prevent from settling further. The formation of planetesimals through the gravitational instabilities is difficult to occur as long as the dust/gas surface density ratio is equal to that for the solar abundance. On the other hand, the shear instability is suppressed and the planetesimal formation through the gravitational instability may occur, if dust/gas surface density ratio is hundreds times as large as that for the solar abundance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science