The effects of warmth and CO2 concentration, with and without bioeffluents, on the emission of CO2 by occupants and physiological responses

Kazuki Kuga, Kazuhide Ito, Pawel Wargocki

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The emission rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) depends on many factors but mainly on the activity level (metabolic rate) of occupants. In this study, we examined two other factors that may influence the CO2 emission rate, namely the background CO2 concentration and the indoor temperature. Six male volunteers sat one by one in a 1.7 m3 chamber for 2.5 h and performed light office-type work under five different conditions with two temperature levels (23 vs. 28°C) and three background concentrations of CO2 (800 vs. 1400 vs. 3000 ppm). Background CO2 levels were increased either by dosing CO2 from a cylinder or by reducing the outdoor air supply rate. Physiological responses to warmth, added CO2, and bioeffluents were monitored. The rate of CO2 emission was estimated using a mass-balance equation. The results indicate a higher CO2 emission rate at the higher temperature, at which the subjects were warm, and a lower emission rate in all conditions in which the background CO2 concentration increased. Physiological measurements partially explained the present results but more measurements are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2176-2187
Number of pages12
JournalIndoor Air
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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