CD64 is an Fc-gamma-receptor type 1. The expression level of neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) is a known bacterial infection marker, and it also increases in viral infections. We examined the absolute nCD64 before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine its role as an infection and inflammation marker of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this prospective observational study, 94 HIV-infected patients were enrolled and classified into ART (n = 62), ART naive (n = 24), and acute/early phase groups (n = 8). The median nCD64 was 1,430 molecules/cell in the ART group, 2,994 in the ART naive group, 4,625 in the acute/early phase group, and 1,196 in the healthy control group. The nCD64 in the ART group was significantly higher compared with the healthy controls (p = .041), and the nCD64 in the ART naive and acute/early phase groups was significantly higher compared with the ART group (both p < .001). In the ART naive group, nCD64 was significantly higher in patients with than without concomitant infections (3,942 ± 1,519 vs. 2,300 ± 784, p = .004). However, this was influenced by the fact that nCD64 elevated as the stage of HIV infection progressed. nCD64 decreased significantly during the 24 weeks after starting ART (p = .004), although an upward trend in nCD64 was observed at weeks 2 and 4, without symptoms. When immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred, nCD64 elevated with a wider range than did C-reactive protein. This preliminary study suggests that nCD64 would be useful as a marker of the systemic inflammation of HIV-infected patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases