The finding of a group IIE phospholipase A2 gene in a specified segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis genome and its possible evolutionary relationship to group IIA phospholipase A2 genes

Kazuaki Yamaguchi, Takahito Chijiwa, Naoki Ikeda, Hiroki Shibata, Yasuyuki Fukumaki, Naoko Oda-Ueda, Shosaku Hattori, Motonori Ohno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3) in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3471-3487
Number of pages17
JournalToxins
Volume6
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Group II Phospholipases A2
Genes
Genome
Snakes
Gene encoding
Venoms
Human Genome
Colubridae
3' Flanking Region
Amino Acids
5' Flanking Region
Proteins
Mammals
Protein Sorting Signals
Birds

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

The finding of a group IIE phospholipase A2 gene in a specified segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis genome and its possible evolutionary relationship to group IIA phospholipase A2 genes. / Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Chijiwa, Takahito; Ikeda, Naoki; Shibata, Hiroki; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Hattori, Shosaku; Ohno, Motonori.

In: Toxins, Vol. 6, No. 12, 01.01.2014, p. 3471-3487.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yamaguchi, Kazuaki ; Chijiwa, Takahito ; Ikeda, Naoki ; Shibata, Hiroki ; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki ; Oda-Ueda, Naoko ; Hattori, Shosaku ; Ohno, Motonori. / The finding of a group IIE phospholipase A2 gene in a specified segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis genome and its possible evolutionary relationship to group IIA phospholipase A2 genes. In: Toxins. 2014 ; Vol. 6, No. 12. pp. 3471-3487.
@article{f735c165d1354ec880a398b158e3f5bf,
title = "The finding of a group IIE phospholipase A2 gene in a specified segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis genome and its possible evolutionary relationship to group IIA phospholipase A2 genes",
abstract = "The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3) in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene.",
author = "Kazuaki Yamaguchi and Takahito Chijiwa and Naoki Ikeda and Hiroki Shibata and Yasuyuki Fukumaki and Naoko Oda-Ueda and Shosaku Hattori and Motonori Ohno",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/toxins6123471",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "3471--3487",
journal = "Toxins",
issn = "2072-6651",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The finding of a group IIE phospholipase A2 gene in a specified segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis genome and its possible evolutionary relationship to group IIA phospholipase A2 genes

AU - Yamaguchi, Kazuaki

AU - Chijiwa, Takahito

AU - Ikeda, Naoki

AU - Shibata, Hiroki

AU - Fukumaki, Yasuyuki

AU - Oda-Ueda, Naoko

AU - Hattori, Shosaku

AU - Ohno, Motonori

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3) in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene.

AB - The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3) in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84919782243&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84919782243&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/toxins6123471

DO - 10.3390/toxins6123471

M3 - Article

C2 - 25529307

AN - SCOPUS:84919782243

VL - 6

SP - 3471

EP - 3487

JO - Toxins

JF - Toxins

SN - 2072-6651

IS - 12

ER -