### Abstract

The gravitational instability in the dust layer of a protoplanetary disk with nonuniform dust density distributions in the direction vertical to the midplane is investigated. The linear analysis of the gravitational instability is performed. The following assumptions are used: (1) One fluid model is adopted, that is, difference of velocities between dust and gas are neglected. (2) The gas is incompressible. (3) Models are axisymmetric with respect to the rotation axis of the disk. Numerical results show that the critical density at the midplane is higher than the one for the uniform dust density distribution by Sekiya (1983, Prog. Theor. Phys. 69, 1116-1130). For the Gaussian dust density distribution, the critical density is 1.3 times higher, although we do not consider this dust density distribution to be realistic because of the shear instability in the dust layer. For the dust density distribution with a constant Richardson number, which is considered to be realized due to the shear instability, the critical density is 2.85 times higher and is independent of the value of the Richardson number. Further, if a constant Richardson number could decrease to the order of 0.001, the gravitational instability would be realized even for the dust to gas surface density ratio with the solar abundance. Our results give a new restriction on planetesimal formation by the gravitational instability.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 180-192 |

Number of pages | 13 |

Journal | Icarus |

Volume | 170 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jul 1 2004 |

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### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science

### Cite this

**The gravitational instability in the dust layer of a protoplanetary disk : Axisymmetric solutions for nonuniform dust density distributions in the direction vertical to the midplane.** / Yamoto, Fumiharu; Sekiya, Minoru.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The gravitational instability in the dust layer of a protoplanetary disk

T2 - Axisymmetric solutions for nonuniform dust density distributions in the direction vertical to the midplane

AU - Yamoto, Fumiharu

AU - Sekiya, Minoru

PY - 2004/7/1

Y1 - 2004/7/1

N2 - The gravitational instability in the dust layer of a protoplanetary disk with nonuniform dust density distributions in the direction vertical to the midplane is investigated. The linear analysis of the gravitational instability is performed. The following assumptions are used: (1) One fluid model is adopted, that is, difference of velocities between dust and gas are neglected. (2) The gas is incompressible. (3) Models are axisymmetric with respect to the rotation axis of the disk. Numerical results show that the critical density at the midplane is higher than the one for the uniform dust density distribution by Sekiya (1983, Prog. Theor. Phys. 69, 1116-1130). For the Gaussian dust density distribution, the critical density is 1.3 times higher, although we do not consider this dust density distribution to be realistic because of the shear instability in the dust layer. For the dust density distribution with a constant Richardson number, which is considered to be realized due to the shear instability, the critical density is 2.85 times higher and is independent of the value of the Richardson number. Further, if a constant Richardson number could decrease to the order of 0.001, the gravitational instability would be realized even for the dust to gas surface density ratio with the solar abundance. Our results give a new restriction on planetesimal formation by the gravitational instability.

AB - The gravitational instability in the dust layer of a protoplanetary disk with nonuniform dust density distributions in the direction vertical to the midplane is investigated. The linear analysis of the gravitational instability is performed. The following assumptions are used: (1) One fluid model is adopted, that is, difference of velocities between dust and gas are neglected. (2) The gas is incompressible. (3) Models are axisymmetric with respect to the rotation axis of the disk. Numerical results show that the critical density at the midplane is higher than the one for the uniform dust density distribution by Sekiya (1983, Prog. Theor. Phys. 69, 1116-1130). For the Gaussian dust density distribution, the critical density is 1.3 times higher, although we do not consider this dust density distribution to be realistic because of the shear instability in the dust layer. For the dust density distribution with a constant Richardson number, which is considered to be realized due to the shear instability, the critical density is 2.85 times higher and is independent of the value of the Richardson number. Further, if a constant Richardson number could decrease to the order of 0.001, the gravitational instability would be realized even for the dust to gas surface density ratio with the solar abundance. Our results give a new restriction on planetesimal formation by the gravitational instability.

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U2 - 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.03.002

DO - 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.03.002

M3 - Article

VL - 170

SP - 180

EP - 192

JO - Icarus

JF - Icarus

SN - 0019-1035

IS - 1

ER -