Background: Patients with favorable-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS) are strictly followed for safer execution. Repeat protocol biopsy is essential for evaluating cancer aggressiveness. However, the acceptance rate of repeat biopsy is not high enough because of the burdens of biopsy. We assessed the impact of complications after the initial biopsy on repeat protocol biopsy at 1 year using data from the Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS)-JAPAN study. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis using a prospective cohort in the PRIAS-JAPAN study. Patients with favorable-risk prostate cancer (n = 856) who consented to participate in the PRIAS-JAPAN study from 2010 to 2018 were enrolled. Follow-up evaluations included regular prostate-specific antigen, digital rectal examination and biopsy. Rates of complications after biopsies and repeat protocol biopsy non-acceptance rate at 1 year were reported. Logistic regression analysis explored the association between the complications after the initial biopsy and repeat protocol biopsy non-acceptance. Results: Altogether, 759 patients (88.7%) actually proceeded to protocol at 1 year. Repeat protocol biopsy non-acceptance rate at 1 year was 14.9%. Regarding complications after the initial biopsy, hematuria (p = 0.028) and pain (p < 0.001) rates were significantly higher in the repeat biopsy non-acceptance group, but infection (p = 0.056) and hematospermia (p = 0.337) rates were not different. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, pain was a significant predictor for repeat protocol biopsy non-acceptance (odds ratio 4.68, 95% confidence interval 1.864–11.75; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Pain at the initial biopsy negatively impacts patients’ compliance with further protocol biopsies during AS.
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