We examined the impact of opportunistic infections on in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and the total cost (TC) among adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) patients. In this retrospective cohort study, we identified 3712 patients with ATL using national hospital administrative data. Analysed opportunistic infections included Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus (VZV), Cryptococcus spp., nontuberculous mycobacteria, and Strongyloides spp. Multilevel logistic regression analysis for in-hospital mortality and a multilevel linear regression analysis for LOS and TC were employed to determine the impact of opportunistic infections on clinical outcomes and healthcare resources. We found ATL patients infected with CMV had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.29 [1.50-3.49] p < 0.001), longer LOS (coefficient (B): 0.13 [0.06-0.20] p < 0.001) and higher TC (B: 0.25 [0.17-0.32] p < 0.001) than those without CMV. Those with CAN and PCP were associated with a lower in-hospital mortality rate (AOR 0.72 [0.53-0.98] p = 0.035 and 0.54[0.41-0.73] p < 0.001, respectively) than their infections. VZV was associated with longer LOS (B: 0.13 [0.06-0.19] p < 0.001), while aspergillosis, HSV, or VZV infections were associated with higher TC (B: 0.16 [0.07-0.24] p < 0.001, 0.12 [0.02-0.23] p = 0.025, and 0.17 [0.10-0.24] p < 0.001, respectively). Our findings reveal that CMV infection is a major determinant of poor prognosis in patients affected by ATL.
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