The infiltration of classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and parametrial adipose tissue (PAT) was analyzed to investigate whether local inflammatory change in adipose tissue occurs in late pregnancy. C57BL/6N female mice at 6 weeks of age were fed a normal chow diet for 4 weeks prior to mating at 10 weeks of age and were sampled on day 17 of pregnancy. The serum levels of adipokines and biochemical markers were measured using ELISA and enzymatic methods. The identification of M1 and M2 was analyzed by double immunofluorescence with anti-F4/80 and anti-CD11c antibodies. The gene expression of adipokines in adipose tissues was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The pregnant group showed adipocyte hypertrophy, higher macrophage infiltration, and higher M1/M2 in both SAT and PAT compared with the non-pregnant (NP) group. Serum levels of free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL10 were higher, and serum levels of adiponectin were lower in the pregnant group than those in the NP group. The gene expressions of CD68, Itgax, CCR2, TNFa, and PAI1 in SAT during pregnancy were significantly higher than those in the NP group, as were the gene expressions of CD68, Emrl, Itgax, MCP1, TNFα, IL6, PAI1, adiponectin, and IL10 in PAT. These results suggest that the low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue indicated by increased macrophage infiltration occurs in late normal pregnancy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology